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Minting Dynamic NFTs with QRNG

Quantumon➚ - Quantum Monsters are a collection of AI generated monsters that are minted to users with the help of API3's QRNG and DALL-E AI➚. It utilities the power of QRNG to generate unique random NFTs.

One of the most important aspects of NFTs is their perceived rarity making it very important for the attributes that affect rarity to be randomly generated. If a bad actor exploits the minting contract, they can keep the rare items for themselves making it unfair for everyone else. With QRNG, you can do fair distribution of NFTs using “out of order”➚ minting.

1. Defining the Imports

To see how Quantumon works, you can visit the Quantumon➚ website. It uses an ERC-721 standard contract and QRNG to mint random NFTs and distribute them. Check out the code here➚.

Start by specifying the license, solidity version, importing the necessary contracts and then creating the actual contract itself.

//SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity 0.8.14;
import "@api3/airnode-protocol/contracts/rrp/requesters/RrpRequesterV0.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC721/ERC721.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/access/Ownable.sol";
contract Quantumon is ERC721, RrpRequesterV0, Ownable {

  • Ownable : This is Openzeppelin implementation of an ownership➚ contract. Contracts that inherit the Ownable contract have access to modifiers that make it possible for certain function to only be invoked by the owner. The owner of the contract is the contract deployer. However the ownership can be transferred by the owner.

  • ERC721 : This is Openzeppelin implementation of a Non Fungible Token(NFT)➚ standard. This is the contract we inherit to have the contract be able to mint and transfer NFTs.

  • RrpRequesterV0 : The main contract will inherit this contract to be declared as a Requester that will be communicating with the Request Response Protocol(RRP). Using the RRP protocol you will request for a random number from the QRNG Airnode.

2. Constructor and Public Variables

contract Quantumon is ERC721, RrpRequesterV0, Ownable {
    using Strings for uint256;

    uint256[9958] public ids; //Array to store the Quantomon Id - This is different from the tokenId
    uint256 private index;	// Track the next TokenId to be minted
    string private _baseURIextended; // The Extended baseUrl for ERC721
    mapping(uint256 => string) private _tokenURIs; //Mapping a custom URI to a tokenId

    address public airnode;            //The address of the QRNG airnode
    bytes32 public endpointIdUint256;  // The endpointId of the airnode to fetch a single random number
    address public sponsorWallet;      // The address of the sponsorWallet that will be making the fullfillment transaction

    // Mapping that maps the requestId for a random number to the fullfillment status of that request
    mapping(bytes32 => bool) public expectingRequestWithIdToBeFulfilled;

    //Mapping that maps the requestId to the address that made the request
    mapping(bytes32 => address) requestToSender;

    constructor(address _airnodeRrp)

  • using Strings for uint256;

    • This statement makes it possible for a uint256 variable to call up functions in the Strings library.
  • ids: This is an array used to help in “out of order” minting process. This array does not keep track of the already minted NFTs.

  • index: This variable will be used to keep track of the number of NFTs minted so far.

  • _baseURIextended: This variable holds the base URI which will be appended to the tokenURI of each minted NFT.

  • airnode: The airnode variable holds the address of the QRNG Airnode which will be used to request a random number from.

  • endpointIdUint256: When sending a request to the airnode you need to specify the endpointId. You can think of the endpointId as the path in a url. For example if the URL is then would be the airnode and /images would be the endpointId.

  • sponsorWallet: The fullfilment transaction that returns us the random number will be done via the sponsorWallet of QRNG Airnode. It is called sponsorWallet because it is derived via the sponsor address(since we import RrpRequesterV0 this contract sponsor’s itself so the sponsor address is the address of the contract after it is deployed) and the QRNG Airnode’s extended public key.

  • expectingRequestWithIdToBeFulfilled: Whenever you make a request to the airnode, a requestId is returned. This mapping maps the requestId to a boolean, setting it true when a request is made and setting it false when the request is fulfilled.

  • requesterToSender: This mapping maps the requestId to the address making the request.

The constructor of the contract will be invoked when we deploy the contract. The constructor will accept a single argument called _airnodeRrp . This argument is the address of the Airnode Request Response Protocol of the chain this contract will be deployed to. A list of all the AirnodeRrp addresses can be found here for each chain. This address is passed onto the constructor of RrpRequesterV0 which sets the current deployed contract as a sponsor for itself. You don’t have to worry about sponsorship for now we will cover that in a bit.

You also need to call the constructor of ERC721 and give it the tokenName and tokenSymbol as arguments. In this case it is QUANTUMON for both the name and symbol.

3. Setting the Request Parameters

function setRequestParameters(
        address _airnode,
        bytes32 _endpointIdUint256,
        address _sponsorWallet
    ) external onlyOwner {
        airnode = _airnode;
        endpointIdUint256 = _endpointIdUint256;
        sponsorWallet = _sponsorWallet;
        emit SetRequestParameters(airnode, endpointIdUint256, sponsorWallet);

The setRequestParameters function is used to set the QRNG Airnode parameters. It sets the airnode, endpointIdUint256 and sponsorWallet. This function has the onlyOwner modifier which means that only the owner of this contract can call this function. The setRequestParameters function should be called immediately after deploying the contract.

4. Metadata and TokenURI functions

NFT platforms call the tokenURI(uint256 tokenId) function to get the url that points to the metadata of the NFT. This metadata contains different attributes of the NFT like its name, image and other custom attributes depending on which platform you use. Opensea expects the metadata to be of the following format:

    "description": "Friendly OpenSea Creature",
    "external_url": "",
    "image": "",
    "name": "Dave Starbelly",
    "attributes": [ ... ],

Override the default ERC721 tokenURI() method to enable custom URI for every token and also add a baseURL that gets prefixed to every tokenURI.

function setBaseURI(string memory baseURI) external onlyOwner {
        _baseURIextended = baseURI;
        emit SetBaseURI(_baseURIextended);

    function _setTokenURI(uint256 tokenId, string memory _tokenURI)
            "ERC721Metadata: URI set of nonexistent token"
        _tokenURIs[tokenId] = _tokenURI;

    function _baseURI() internal view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        return _baseURIextended;

    function tokenURI(uint256 tokenId)
        returns (string memory)
            "ERC721Metadata: URI query for nonexistent token"

        string memory _tokenURI = _tokenURIs[tokenId];
        string memory base = _baseURI();

        // If there is no base URI, return the token URI.
        if (bytes(base).length == 0) {
            return _tokenURI;
        // If both are set, concatenate the baseURI and tokenURI (via abi.encodePacked).
        if (bytes(_tokenURI).length > 0) {
            return string(abi.encodePacked(base, _tokenURI));
        // If there is a baseURI but no tokenURI, concatenate the tokenID to the baseURI.
        return string(abi.encodePacked(base, tokenId.toString()));

_baseURI: This function is an internal function which means that this can only be called by this contract or contracts that inherit this contract. _baseURI is a method of the original ERC721 contract, we are overriding it using the override keyword to just return the _baseURIextended string.

setBaseURI: This function is an onlyOwner function that can set the _baseURIextended string.

_setTokenURI: This is an internal function that maps the URI to a tokenId. If the tokenId hasn’t been minted it will revert.

tokenURI: This is a view function (function that don’t change the state of the blockchain) that is overridden to return the URI in the _tokenURIs mapping. The code comments explain what it does in more detail.

Note: In solidity string(abi.encodePacked(StringA,StringB)) returns

the concatenation of stringA and stringB.

5. How the NFTs are structured

We have all the necessary variables and functions to request a random number and mint our NFT. In our case each NFT has a _baseUrlExtended that is set to

If we add 0 to the end of that URL we get the metadata of the 0th Quantumon. If we add 1, we get the metadata of the 1st Quantumon. In total there are 9958 Quantumons which means there are 9958 metadata files. We want to be able to randomly choose the number that gets appended to this url, however if a Quantumon is already minted we don’t want to mint it again. To do this we use this algorithm by Justin Silver that takes a random number and gives a completely unique non minted QuantumonId.

function _pickRandomUniqueId(uint256 random) private returns (uint256 id) {
    uint256 len = ids.length - index++;
    require(len > 0, 'no ids left');
    uint256 randomIndex = random % len;
    id = ids[randomIndex] != 0 ? ids[randomIndex] : randomIndex;
    ids[randomIndex] = uint16(ids[len - 1] == 0 ? len - 1 : ids[len - 1]);ids[len - 1] = 0;

requestQuantumon function

function requestQuantumon() public payable returns (bytes32) {
            msg.value >= 5 ether,
            "Need to send atleast 5 ether to the sponsorWallet"
        bytes32 requestId = airnodeRrp.makeFullRequest(
        expectingRequestWithIdToBeFulfilled[requestId] = true;
        requestToSender[requestId] = msg.sender;
        (bool success, ) ={value: 0.01 ether}("");
        require(success, "Forward failed");
        emit RequestQuantumon(msg.sender, requestId);
        return requestId;

To use the algorithm to mint the Quantumons you need to request the random number first. The requestQuantumon() function creates the request to the Airnode using the airnodeRrp.makeFullRequest() function. The airnodeRrp.makeFullRequest() function expects the following arguments:

  • airnode
  • endpointId
  • sponsor
  • sponsorWallet
  • fulfillmentAddress
  • fulfillmentFunction
  • parameters

To understand sponsor and sponsorWallets, we need to first understand the first party oracle architecture. The diagram below will help you understand it a little better.

Essentially when you call makeFullRequest() an event is emitted and the API’s airnode is listening to this event. Based on the event it makes the call to the actual API itself and fetches the data we requested. In our case it fetches the random number and makes a callback. This callback is again a blockchain transaction. Blockchain transaction costs gas and the API’s airnode doesn’t want to spend money on gas. Hence we “sponsor” our smart contract and send gas tokens to the api cloud provider to make the callback transaction.

But where do we send our funds? How will the API’s airnode know which sponsor does the funds belong to in case of multiple such sponsors?

There is a way to derive a wallet that is owned by the api cloud provider which will be unique for each sponsor.

using the command below you can derive a unique sponsorWallet for a given sponsor, all you need is the airnode address and the airnode’s extended public key.

npx @api3/airnode-admin derive-sponsor-wallet-address \
  --airnode-xpub xpub6CUGRUo... \
  --airnode-address 0xe1e0dd... \
  --sponsor-address 0x9Ec6C4...

By inheriting the RrpRequesterV0 contract, we declare the contract as its own sponsor. This means that we can substitute the address of the deployed contract as the sponsor address in the above command.

fulfillmentAddress is the address the request will be fullfilled to, in our case it will be the address of the contract itself.

fullfullmentFunction is the function within the fulfillmentAddress that will be called with the requested data. In our case it is the generateQuantumon Function

Now that we have all our parameters we can call the makeFullRequest() function. The makeFullRequest() function returns a requestId , which we use to set the expectingRequestWithIdToBeFulfilled mapping and also the requestToSender mapping.

The requestQuantumon function has a require(msg.value >= 5 ether,"...") condition, which means the user must pay 5 ether to be able to call this function.

To have a streamlined UX we can have the user pay for the fulfillment transaction by sending some funds over to the sponsorWallet using{value: 0.01 ether}("") . In most cases this amount should be enough to cover the fulfillment transaction, however it depends on the gas price and gas cost of the transaction, so vary it accordingly.

6. generateQuantumons function

function generateQuantumon(bytes32 requestId, bytes calldata data)
            "Request ID not known"
        expectingRequestWithIdToBeFulfilled[requestId] = false;
        uint256 qrngUint256 = abi.decode(data, (uint256));
        uint256 id = _pickRandomUniqueId(qrngUint256);
        uint256 tokenId = index - 1;
        _safeMint(requestToSender[requestId], tokenId);
        _setTokenURI(tokenId, id.toString());
        emit GenerateQuantumon(requestToSender[requestId], tokenId);

When the airnode makes the fullfillment transaction it will call generateQuantumon() with requestId and data as arguments.

Note: generateQuantumon() has the onlyAirnodeRrpmodifier which

means that only the AirnodeRrpcontract can call this function.

we decode the data, using abi.decode(data, (uint256)) . We decode using uint256 because we know that data only contains a uint256 random number. Using this random number we call _pickRandomUniqueId() to get a non minted Quantumon Id. We use index to keep track of the how many Quantumons have been minted and it also serves as the tokenId of the next mint.

We now call the _mint() function and supply it destinationAddress, tokenId as arguments. The destination address is the address we set in the requestToSender mapping for the specified requestId.

We also call the _setTokenURI() which maps the Quantumon id to the tokenId. (Remember: the tokenIds are minted sequentially, but we want the Quantumon ids to be minted “out of order”).


In this guide, you learned Quantumon utilities QRNG and minted Quantumon Monsters. You also learned how to request data from a QRNG Airnode and how to use the data to mint an NFT.

See the source code for the Quantumon contract ➚.


Released under the MIT License.